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Fig. 1. Tissue section of inflammatory sites showing effects of anti-inflammatory substances in S100 Milk, using a standard experimental model of TPA triggered inflammation(19, 20).

In an animal study, it was shown that the inflammatory response triggered by the topical application of 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) to the surface of mouse ears, could be inhibited by the topical application of S100 Milk extracts (Fig. 1).
Subsequently, in later studies of S100 Milk, researchers began to more thoroughly investigate the anti-inflammatory factors in S100 Milk(12, 13, 14, 15 ,16).

 

 

Animal Study(12, 13):
Ormrod et al. (1992) conducted studies using the carrageenan-induced rat footpad oedema model. The studies showed that anti-inflammatory fractions could be obtained from S100 Milk using ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography yielding what is known as hyperimmune milk factor (HIMF). It is generally acknowledged that when inflammation occurs, the permeability of blood vessels increases and leukocytes will migrate to the site of inflammation. In this study, it was found that HIMF could inhibit the migration of neutrophils into the site of inflammation by up to 75%. In addition to inhibiting leukocyte migration, the study also showed that HIMF reduced the oedema caused by the inflammation process (Fig. 2)(12).


In order to further understand the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of HIMF, Stelwagen et al. (1998) used a cell culture model, and showed that HIMF derived from S100 Milk could promote the formation of tight junctions in epithelial monolayers(13), which in turn, can inhibit the migration of neutrophils into inflammatory sites (Fig. 3).
 

Fig. 2. The number of migrating neutrophils in the treatment group was significantly less than in the control group, and the oedema associated with inflammation was also less in the experimental group(12). * p<0.01

Fig. 3. HIMF can significantly promote the formation of tight junctions in epithelial monolayers(13). * p<0.05 ** p<0.01

 

 

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